Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia is an abnormality of platelets. It is an extremely rare coagulopathy (bleeding disorder due to a blood abnormality), in which the platelets contain defective or low levels of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GpIIb/IIIa), which is a receptor for fibrinogen. As a result, no fibrinogen bridging of platelets to other platelets can occur, and the bleeding time is significantly prolonged.
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains. The carbohydrate is attached to the protein in a cotranslational or posttranslational modification. This process is known asglycosylation. Secreted extracellular proteins are often glycosylated. In proteins that have segments extending extracellularly, the extracellular segments are also glycosylated. Glycoproteins are often important integral membrane proteins, where they play a role in cell–cell interactions. Glycoproteins are also formed in the cytosol, but their functions and the pathways producing these modifications in this compartment are less well understood.
Glycoprotein Ib (GPIb), also known as CD42, is a component of the GPIb-V-IX complex on platelets. The GPIb-V-IX complex binds von Willebrand factor, allowing platelet adhesion and platelet plug formation at sites of vascular injury.
It is deficient in the Bernard-Soulier syndrome. A gain-of-function mutation causes platelet-type von Willebrand’s disease.
Autoantibodies against Ib/IX can be produced in immune thrombocytopenic purpura.
Components include GP1BA and GP1BB.
It complexes with Glycoprotein IX.
Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa, also known as integrin αIIbβ3) is an integrin complex found on platelets. It is a receptor for fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor and aids in platelet activation. The complex is formed via calcium-dependent association of gpIIb and gpIIIa, a required step in normal platelet aggregation and endothelial adherence. Platelet activation by ADP (blocked by clopidogrel) leads to a conformational change in platelet gpIIb/IIIa receptors that induces binding to fibrinogen. The gpIIb/IIIa receptor is a target of several drugs including abciximab, eptifibatide, tirofiban.